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segunda-feira, 6 de janeiro de 2014

Blog comemorativo dos 50 anos do IBM Mainframe System/360


IBM Mainframe System z - 50 anos 

Anúncio Oficial de Lançamento 


Em 7 de Abril próximo,  será comemorado o 50' aniversário de lançamento da família de computadores IBM Mainframe System/360.  Essa família de computadores é a mais longeva de todas as tecnologias já lançadas no mundo, sendo atualizada constantemente pela IBM e atendendo milhares de empresas mundo afora até os dias de hoje.  Atualmente essa família denomina-se IBM Mainframe System z e mantém total compatibilidade funcional com o sistema original, lançado em 1964.

 Veja abaixo , documento do anúncio oficial em 7 de Abril de 1964, em New York, USA.

System/360 Announcement

The following is the text of an IBM Data Processing Division press release

distributed on April 7, 1964.


A new generation of electronic computing equipment was introduced today

by International Business Machines Corporation.

IBM Board Chairman Thomas J. Watson Jr. called the event the most

important product announcement in the company's history.

The new equipment is known as the IBM System/360.

It combines microelectronic technology, which makes possible operating
speeds measured in billionths of a second, with significant advances in the
concepts of computer organization.

At a press conference at the company's Poughkeepsie facilities, Mr.
Watson said:
"System/360 represents a sharp departure from concepts of the past in
designing and building computers. It is the product of an international
effort in IBM's laboratories and plants and is the first time IBM has
redesigned the basic internal architecture of its computers in a decade. The
result will be more computer productivity at lower cost than ever before.
This is the beginning of a new generation - - not only of computers - - but
of their application in business, science and government."
More than 100,000 businessmen in 165 American cities today attended
meetings at which System/360 was announced.

Single system
System/360 is a single system spanning the performance range of virtually
all current IBM computers - - from the widely used 1401 to nearly twice
that of the most powerful computer previously built by the company. It
was developed to perform information handling jobs encompassing all
types of applications.
System/360 includes in its central processors 19 combinations of graduated
speed and memory capacity. Incorporated with these are more than 40
types of peripheral equipment which store information and enter it into and
retrieve it from the computer. Built-in communications capability makes
System/360 available to remote terminals, regardless of distance.
The equipment is supported by programs which enable System/360 to
schedule its own activities for non-stop computing that makes most
efficient use of system capabilities.
Internal processing power of the largest System/360 configuration is
approximately 50 times greater than that of the smallest. The system's
machine cycle time - - basic pulse beat of a computer - - ranges from one
millionth-of-a-second to only 200 billionths-of-a-second.
System/360 core storage memory capacity ranges from 8,000 characters of
information to more than 8,000,000. Information storage devices linked to
the system can store additional billions of characters of data and make
them available for processing at varying speeds, depending on need.
It is the balancing of these factors - - all available within a single system
using one set of programming instructions - - that will make it possible for
a user to select a configuration suited to his own requirements for both
commercial and scientific computing. With the same type of input/output
devices, a user can expand his System/360 to any point in its performance
range, without reprogramming.

Computer advances
Some of the most significant advances represented by the new IBM:



.  Solid Logic Technology. Microelectronic circuits -- product of

IBM's Solid Logic Technology -- make up the system's basic

componentry. System/360 is the first commercially available data

processing system whose design is based on the use of

microminiaturized computer circuits.

Called logic circuits because they carry and control the electrical

impulses which represent information within a computer, these tiny

devices operate at speeds ranging from 300 down to six billionths-of
-a-second. Transistors and diodes mounted on the circuits are only
28 thousandths-of-an-inch square and are protected by a film of
glass 60 millionths-of-an-inch thick.

• Memory power. A hierarchy of memories within System/360
makes information in core storage available at varying speeds.
Small local store memories operate in as little as 200 billionths-of-asecond.
Control memories operate in as little as 250 billionths-of-asecond.
Powerful main memories - - containing up to 524,000
characters of information - - range from 2.5 millionths-of-a-second
down to one millionth-of-a-second.
A key development provides 8,000,000 characters in bulk core
storage - - each character available in eight millionths-of-a-second
and each at the direct command of a computer programmer. This is
over sixty times more directly addressable characters than were
previously available in IBM computers. The computer's historic
limitations on memory size are overcome by this development.

• Application versatility. The traditional distinction between
computers for commercial and scientific use is eliminated in
System/360. Users will be able to process both business and
scientific problems, or a combination of the two, with equal
effectiveness. This versatility is reinforced by the variety of
peripheral equipment which is part of the system.

• Communications capability. Built into System/360 is the ability to
respond to inquiries and messages from remote locations at any
time. Hundreds of terminal devices can communicate
simultaneously with a system while the computer continues to
process the basic job on which it is working.
System/360 monthly rentals will range from $2,700 for a basic
configuration to $115,000 for a typical large multisystem
configuration. Comparable purchase prices range from $133,000 to
$5,500,000.
Deliveries of the small configurations of System/360 are scheduled
to begin in the third quarter of 1965. Deliveries of the largest
configurations are scheduled to begin in the first quarter of 1966.